Geography Facts UPSC and for every Exam – Download PDF

Geography Facts UPSC

Indian standard time passes through 5 states namely:

  1. Uttar Pradesh,
  2. Madhya Pradesh,
  3. Andhra Pradesh,
  4. Odisha and
  5. Chhattisgarh.

Indian states touching Maritime boundary on Western Side are

  • Gujarat,
  • Maharashtra,
  • Goa,
  • Karnataka &
  • Kerala.


On Eastern sides, States are:

  • West Bengal,
  • Odisha,
  • Andhra Pradesh &
  • Tamil Nadu.Therefore total 9 States are along the maritime boundary.

  • Distance between equator and Southern point of India is 876 km.
  • Indian standard time lies on 82 1/2 ° and passes through Allahabad (Naini or Mirzapur)
  • 8 degree channel lies between Maldives and Minicoy Island.
  • 9 degree channel lies between Minicoy Island and Lakshadweep.
  • 10 degree channel lies between car Nicobar and little Andaman. (Little Andaman is on upper side of bay of Bengal)
  • Grand channel is the Maritime boundary between India(Andaman and Nicobar) and Indonesia.

Indus water treaty 1960 was done between India and Pakistan in the chairmanship of World Bank.

  • According to this upper three rivers Indus, Jhelum and Chenab’s river’s 80% of water will be used by Pakistan and 20% of water by India.
  • And lower three rivers Ravi, Beas and Sutlej’s river’s 80% of water will be used by India and 20% of water by Pakistan.

  • Chambal, Betwa and Ken are the tributaries of river Yamuna.
  • Majuli is World’s biggest river island and Umananda’ island is world’s smallest river island. Both are on river Brahmaputra in Assam.
  • Ganga river is known as Padma in Bangladesh and Brahmaputra river is known as Jamuna in Bangladesh.

Geography Facts UPSC

Brahmaputra river is known as Tsang po in Tibet, Dihang in Arunachal Pradesh)

When both combined to fall in bay of Bengal they together known as Meghna.

Geography Facts UPSC

Important Rivers & River related Information

Luni river originate from Aravali mountains (among oldest mountain ranges in the world) and disappears in Gujarat’s Rann of Kutch.

3 rivers originate from Amarkantak .
1. Narmada (Western flowing river goes to fall into to Arab sea)
2. Son (goes to meet Ganga river and the only river which meets Ganga from Southern side)
3. Mahanadi (falls in bay of Bengal)(Hirakud dam which is India’s longest and it is on river Mahanadi in Orissa)

  • Godavari river originates from trimbak hill in Trimbakeshwar Nashik Maharashtra
  • Krishna river originates from Mahabaleshwar and falls into bay of Bengal

  • Cauvery river dispute is between Karnataka and Tamilnadu. Cauvery river originates from Karnataka.
  • Shivsamudram falls is on river Kaveri or Cauvery.
  • Nagarjuna Sagar dam is on river Krishna.
  • Bhakhra Nangal dam, which is India’s highest dam is on river Sutlej, Punjab.
  • Indira Canal, which is India’s longest canal and among the world’s longest is taken from this river Sutlej to irrigate mainly Rajasthan.
  • River Beas is tributary of River Sutlej.

Which three rivers crosses Himalaya and comes to India ?
Ans: Indus, Sutlej and Brahmaputra which after crossing Tibet it enters India

Geography Facts UPSC


Mountains & Ranges 

  • K2 lies on Trans Himalayas,
  • Ladakh lies on Trans Himalayas and
  • Karakoram range lies on Trans Himalayas.
  • K2 is in PoK
  • Mt. Everest lies on Himadri. Kanchenjunga the highest peak in present India also lies on himadri.
  • Guru Shikhar mountain which is in Mount Abu in Rajasthan lies on Aravali ranges and it is the highest (1722m) peak in Aravali ranges.
  • Maikal ranges wherein lies Amarkant peak(highest peak in maikal range) from which Narmada, Son & Mahanadi river originates.
  • Mountain range which lies between Narmada and Tapti river is known as Satpura range and its highest peak is Dhupgarhi.


  • Total island in Arab Sea is 43 in which 36 in Lakshadweep.
  • Total island in Bay of Bengal is 204 therefore India has total 247 Islands.


  • Gujarat to Goa known as Konkan coast.
  • Goa to Mangalore known as Canara coast.
  • Mangalore to Kanyakumari known as Malabar coast.



  • Kanyakumari to mouth of Krishna river known as Coromandel coast.
  • Krishna river to Godavari known as Golconda coast
  • Godavari river to to upper Odisha known as Northern Sircar.

Point where Western and eastern Ghats meets lies in Nilgiri mountains.
Nilgiri mountains lies in Tamilnadu.
Hare live Doda beta peak (2637m) which is second highest mountain in Southern India.
Just below the Nilgiri mountains realise Annamalai mountains where the highest peak of Southern India Anamudi (2696m) lies.

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